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10/21/2021 2:41 AM
muckymuck, mckinleyharris and williamjonex welcome cup

10/19/2021 6:22 AM
Welcome tarunk!

10/17/2021 12:40 PM
Ploni and nader fouad, Welcome!

10/15/2021 2:19 AM
merlot85, maycondelpiero and hoeltz, Welcome !

10/14/2021 10:06 AM
Thanks for the addition to the group. Seriously considering building a drum roaster along the lines of oldgrumpus's. Love the design and craftsmanship.

In Memory Of Ginny

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Processing and Roasting

Air Quenching
The use of rapid airflow to stop the roast and cool the coffee
upon the completion of roasting.

Aquapulp Method
A coffee processing method in which the pulp or mucilage
is scrubbed from the beans by machine.
Also: Demucilage, Lavado, Washed Process, Wet Process.


Bean Probe
A probe thermometer used to monitor bean temperature during the roasting process. Bean probes accurately measure the surface temperature of coffee beans during roasting. Modern roasting systems use either resistance thermal detector (RTD), or thermocouple (TC), bean probes, along with electronic temperature controllers, to monitor and control the roasting process.

Bean Temperature
Roast degree is often defined by internal bean temperature, which cannot be measured directly, but can be approximated by the coffee bean surface temperature as measured by a bean probe (probe thermometer). Modern roasting systems monitor the surface temperature of roasting coffee beans, and can consistently recreate a roast by controlling the bean temperature vs. time profile. Final bean temperature, and time-temperature profiles, are now used in place of bean color monitoring for consistency in roasting. Internal bean temperatures are often cited along with bean probe temperatures when describing degree of roast, but actual internal bean temperature depends not only on the bean surface temperature, but also the time-temperature profile and type of roaster used.


Coffee Cherry
Coffee beans are actually coffee seeds that make up the pit of a coffee cherry. Coffee cherries are picked when they are ripe, and bright red in color. The pulp and mucus is removed, most of the time mechanically, and the coffee seeds are then either set out to dry (natural dry process), or sent to a fermentation tank where the coffee seeds are set in water, and allowed to ferment for anywhere from ~.5day or 1.5days, removing the mucilage from the seed. The coffee seeds are often sorted out by density (higher density being higher quality) at this time, as higher density coffee seeds will sink.

Cooling tray
The cooling tray is usually circular, and equipped with stirring arms that agitate the just-out-of-the-roaster coffee with air being pulled through the tray (and through the mass of freshly roasted beans) to halt the roast by bringing the temperature of the beans down from over 400F down to room temperature. Without forced cooling, the beans would continue to roast beyond the intended rate.


The time needed for a batch of coffee to release Carbon Dioxide for optimum flavor. More degassing is necessary for optimum espresso than is needed for brewed coffee.

Dark Roast
Dark, almost black, with ample amounts of oil present on the surface. Almost, or all origin characteristics are gone, the body is beginning to decrease, the flavor is thin, and usually tastes of the roast, including charcoal, bitter flavors, and very low acidity.


First Crack
A roasting term. The coffee bean?s first expansion as vaporized moisture escapes. The coffee been expands to nearly double its volumetric size, and a popping sound almost like popping popcorn can be heard.


Green Coffee
The coffee seed before it is roasted, and after it is processed and dried. This is the form coffee is in when it is purchased by a roasting company.


Fit or allowed to be eaten or used according to the dietary or ceremonial
laws of Judaism. Certification for adherence to the laws governing kosher foods,
including coffee.


Light Roast
No oil, usually cinnamon, or a little darker in color. Lighter body, more flavor of origin and acidity comes through.


Medium Roast
Very little to no oil present. Milk chocolate in color, has added depth of body at the cost of some acidity, and possibly at the cost of some origin characteristics.


Natural Process
Coffee processing method that involves removing the husk or
fruit after the coffee fruit has been dried. By utilizing only ripe fruit and drying carefully, this method can produce coffees that are complex and fruity.


Parchment Coffee
Coffee beans with the skin and pulp removed, but with the parchment (hull) still attached. Dried parchments are transferred to hulling facilities where the hulls are removed and the beans are packaged in large burlap bags ready for export.??

Processed Coffee
Unroasted coffee beans that have been sorted, pulped, dried, and separated from the hull.??

The mucilage between the coffee cherry skin and the pit (coffee beans). Coffee cherry pulp has a texture similar to a grapes and is normally dried or fermented to allow easier separation from the coffee beans.??

Removing the pulp as part of the wet process. After picking coffee cherries, the first step of processing, using the wet method, is to remove the skin and pulp. Conventional pulping machines have a rotating cylinder that collects harvested cherries immersed in water and presses them against perforations just large enough for the beans to pass. The beans of soft cherries are pushed through the perforations and collected separately while the harder green cherries along with the skin and much of the pulp from the ripe cherries are passed through the machine.?


Roast Profile
The rate, timing, temperature, and homogeneity of roast rate at various layers of the bean (external and internal). Roast profiling is critical for allowing the coffee?s own characteristics to be highlighted as well as for blending different coffees to be used as espresso, or as brewed coffee.


Second Crack

The coffee bean?s second expansion as vaporized moisture is released, and the bean structure itself begins to fracture. Many of the flavors of origin are burned off during second crack, while body is increased, and acidity becomes more muted, or possibly lacking entirely. A noise sounding much like rice cereal in milk can be heard as the second crack develops.


After the coffee is roasted, the beans should rest for 24 hours to allow carbon dioxide to dissipate from the coffee before being brewed. This can be done as whole bean or ground.
Edited by ginny on 03/14/2013 10:07 AM
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