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10/21/2021 2:41 AM
muckymuck, mckinleyharris and williamjonex welcome cup

10/19/2021 6:22 AM
Welcome tarunk!

10/17/2021 12:40 PM
Ploni and nader fouad, Welcome!

10/15/2021 2:19 AM
merlot85, maycondelpiero and hoeltz, Welcome !

10/14/2021 10:06 AM
Thanks for the addition to the group. Seriously considering building a drum roaster along the lines of oldgrumpus's. Love the design and craftsmanship.

In Memory Of Ginny

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Coffee Industry Terms

Acidity describes the sharp lively quality characteristic of high-altitude grown coffee. Acidity is tasted mainly at the tip of the tongue. It is the brisk, snappy quality that makes coffee refreshing. It is NOT the same as bitter or sour and has nothing to do with pH factors. Coffees are low in acidity, between 5 and 6 on the pH scale.

African Beds
Raised flat-bed structures, usually made of wood with a metal screen, on which parchment coffee is dried. Used as an alternative to patio drying, and notable for the fact that they allow more airflow to pass through the coffee during drying.

After-Dinner Roast, Espresso Roast, Continental Roast, and European Roast
Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast ranging from somewhat darker than the traditional American norm to dark brown. Acidity diminishes and a rich bitter-sweetness emerges. Among many newer American specialty roasters, roast styles once called by these names may in fact constitute the typical, "regular" roast of coffee.

Aged Coffee, Vintage Coffee
Traditionally, coffee held in warehouses for several years, sometimes deliberately, sometimes inadvertently. Such aging reduces acidity and increases body. Aged coffee has been held longer than either old crop coffee or mature coffee. Recently, some Indonesia coffee has been subject to a sort of accelerated aging involving deliberate exposure to moist air, much like India's monsooned coffee.

Agtron Scale
A number system for characterizing degree of roast by measuring coffee?s luminance on a white to black
scale. Also: Agtron Rating

A traditional unit of volume and land measurement. In terms of volume, it is equivalent to about 13.8 liters or 12.5 U.S. dry quarts. One alqueire also
equals a variety of land measurements ranging from 0.35 acres to 24 acres.

"Heights" in Spanish; describes Mexico coffee that has been high- or mountain-grown.

Aquapulp Method
A coffee processing method in which the pulp or mucilage is scrubbed from the beans by machine.
Also: Demucilage, Lavado, Washed Process, Wet Process.

Coffea Arabica trees produce nearly all of the worlds specialty coffee. The vast majority of coffee is Robusta or Arabica. Most consider the flavor of Arabica coffee far superior to Robusta. Robusta trees, however, are more "robust" and are less susceptible to insect infestation and disease. Arabica trees are typically grown at high elevations where insects and disease are less prevalent. Because of the inherently steep terrain at high elevations where Arabica is generally grown, mechanical harvesting is impractical, so Arabica coffee is nearly always picked by hand. Hand picking of Arabica results in less under-ripe and over-ripe beans compared to the commonly machine harvested Robusta. If left alone, Arabica trees will grow to 40 feet high, but in most plantations the trees are pruned to less than 8 feet high for better yield and easier harvest. There are at least a dozen variations, or cultivars, of the Coffea Arabica tree. These include: Typica, Bourbon, Caturra, Catuai, Pache Comum, Pache, Catimor, Kent, Mundo Novo, Maragogype, Amarello, and Blue Mountain. Typica is the oldest known Arabica cultivar and is the base from which others developed.??

Artisan Coffee
Coffee produced by skilled Roasters using high quality Arabica coffee beans and modern roasting equipment. Fresh roasted premium whole bean coffee stands in contrast to ordinary, often harsh tasting, ground Robusta.

Market name for coffee from the slopes of Mt. Meru in Tanzania.

A drying sensation on the
tongue most often caused by the presence
of immature beans in the coffee.


Bacterial Blight
A coffee disease that can occur when wet and cold conditions prevail.

While bag is a commonplace word, when it is used in reference to coffee it specifically means a burlap sack filed with coffee. In various countries a "bag" is a different weight. For example, in Brazil a bag is 132 pounds. In Colombia it is 154 pounds. In Hawaii it is 100 pounds. While bags vary in weight, 132 pounds is the most common.

Batch Roaster
Roaster that roasts a given quantity of coffee at a time. Unlike continuous roasters, batch roasters have
an identifiable start and stop time to each roast. See also: Continuous Roaster

A barista is a person who makes coffee drinks as a profession. Starbucks has made recognition of the word "barista" much more profuse, because of the popularity and recognition of their brand. Barista is an Italian word, which not only refers to Starbucks employees, but ANY person who makes coffee as their profession.

A Central American coffee
term for a coffee-processing establishment,
such as a wet mill.

Black Bean
A common physical defect of green beans, resulting in a bean that is at least 50 percent black externally or internally. Usually the result of an infection
during bean development or the prolonged
fermentation of cherries that have been picked up from the ground.

"Blend" refers to a mixture of two or more individual varietals of coffee. A blend can add some depth and complexity to your morning brew. Often, coffee blends are comprised of different types of coffee from one region. Blends can also make certain expensive types of coffee more affordable, by blending them with less expensive varietals.

Coffee produced from the Bourbon cultivar of the Coffea Arabica tree, was named after Bourbon Island where it was first cultivated. Bourbon Island was later renamed Reunion and is located east of Madagascar in the Indian ocean. France introduced the Bourbon cultivar to Africa and Latin America. Bourbon became the second most commercialized Arabica variety after Typica. Both the Typica and Bourbon varieties of Arabica are produced in large quantities throughout the world, but are slowly being replaced by more productive and disease resistant varieties such as Caturra. The Bourbon variety is bright yellow when ripe.

Bourbon Santos
Bourbon Santos is a single origin coffee named after Santos, the port in Brazil where the coffee is shipped. Bourbon is the variety of coffee tree used to make Bourbon Santos. ??

Breaking the Crust
During cupping, the action of breaking apart the cap
of coarse grounds on the top of a cup prior to tasting.

Coffee beans that were cracked or broken during processing; considered a defect.

A bitter, smoky or tarry flavor characteristic, often found in brewed coffee that has been over-roasted.


C Market
The ICE or IntercontinentalExchange (NYSE: ICE) commodities exchange where arabica coffee futures are bought and sold.

Caffeine is the drug contained in coffee which helps to wake you up and keep you alert. Caffeine is a bitter white alkaloid derived from coffee (or tea) and used in medicine for a mild stimulant or to treat certain kinds of headache. It is what gives you a jolt of energy in the morning, but decaffeinated coffees are also widely available for those who dislike the effects of caffeine or want a cup of coffee in the evening before bed.

Caffeine Content
The amount of caffeine in a product. One cup of coffee
contains about 1.5 grains of caffeine.

A volatile aromatic conglomerate formed during roasting.

Also known as Peaberry. A small, round bean formed when only one seed, rather than the usual two, develops at the heart of the coffee fruit. Peaberry beans are often separated from normal beans and sold as a distinct grade of a given coffee. Typically, but not always, they produce a brighter, more acidy, but lighter-bodied cup than normal beans from the same crop.

Carbon Dioxide Process (CO2 Process)
A decaffeination process involving soaking green beans in highly compressed CO2 to extract the caffeine. The caffeine is then removed from the CO2
using activated carbon filters and is reused to extract more caffeine from the coffee.

A relatively recently selected botanical variety of the Coffea arabica species that generally matures more quickly, produces more coffee, and is more disease resistant than older, traditional arabica varieties. Many experts contend that the caturra and modern hybrid varieties of Coffea arabica produce coffee that is inferior in cup quality and distinction to the coffee produced by the traditional "old arabica" varieties like bourbon and typica.

A way of showing that a coffee is grown, harvested, processed and or roasted within the guidelines of a specific set of social or environmental values. Can also be used to mean coffee that meets origin certification, national certification or other political district certifications.

Certified Organic
Coffee is considered Certified Organic if the coffee is farmed with natural renewable resources, as well as water and soil conservation. While this is a great thing, it takes 3 years for a farm to become certified organic. This process is also rather expensive. The irony is found in the fact that if a farm is too poor to become Certified, it?s probably also not able to afford the chemicals that would make the product NOT Organic. Again, there are other efforts in place trying to do something about this for professionals in the industry. Just remember that just because a coffee is not ?certified organic? does not automatically mean that it?s not organic. In fact, in most of the poorer regions of the world, it is.

The fruit of the coffee tree. Each cherry contains two regular coffee beans or one peaberry.

Coffee Berry Borer (CBB)
Hypthenemus Hampei, is one of the most significant pest problems for coffee farmers. An adult CBB is a black, two millimeter long, beetle that bores holes through the seeds coffee cherries. "Broca" is the widely used Spanish term for the coffee berry borer.

Coffee Canephora
Botanical name for the Robusta coffee tree. Coffea Canephora and Coffea Arabica are practically the only coffee species used to make coffee. Robusta coffee trees, like Arabica, can grow about 40 feet high, but Robusta beans tend to be smaller and more bitter. Robusta trees are "robust", meaning they are less susceptible to pests and disease and yield more coffee crop. Because of its ability to resist pests and disease, Coffea Canephora is the dominant coffee species grown at low elevations.??

Coffee Future
Contract to buy coffee at a specified price for delivery at a specified future date. Coffee futures are used by roasters to secure an adequate supply of coffee until the next harvest and as insurance to "lock-in" reasonable prices.

Coffee Leaf Rust
A coffee disease that is spread by spores from lesions on the underside of the plant by wind and rain.
Originally discovered in Brazil in 1970, it is now in most coffee-growing countries. Can cause defects in raw coffee.

Coffee Plant
The coffee plant is a woody perennial evergreen dicotyledon that belongs to the Rubiaceae family. Because it grows to a relatively large height, it is more accurately described as a coffee tree. It has a main vertical trunk (orthotropic) and primary, secondary, and tertiary horizontal branches (plagiotropic).

Coffee Science
Is a multidisciplinary field. It begins with agronomy, biology, and genetics at the field level. Then it encompasses chemistry, physics, and food science throughout the stages of processing, shipping, roasting, and packaging. Coffee scientists may focus on one particular field, but a holistic understanding of coffee and coffee chemistry is essential.

Coffee Oil
The volatile coffee essence
developed in a bean during roasting.

Coffee Trier
A special pointed device for removing a sample of green coffee beans through the bag wall without
opening the bag. Also, as part of a roast ing machine, a metal scoop that is used to catch small samples of roasting coffee for examination during the roasting process.

The caramel colored foam that appears on top of a shot of espresso during the brewing period is called its crema. It soon dissipates after brewing. If your Crema is gone then you waited too long. . . or you received a bad shot! The crema makes a 'cap' which helps retain the aromatics and flavors of the espresso within the cup - the presence of crema indicates an acceptable brew. Crema occurs due to colloids and lipids forced out into an emulsion under the pressure of a espresso machine.

A cultivar is a variation of cultivated plant. Cultivars have a name given in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Typica and Bourbon are cultivars of the Arabica tree.??

You may be familiar with wine "tasting," in which wine drinkers and connoisseurs observe the qualities of wine. When you are discerning the different flavors, body, acidity and other qualities of coffee, it is called "cupping." This is a skill that takes time to learn and develop, but anyone who enjoys coffee can learn cupping with practice. The procedure is used by professional tasters to perform sensory evaluation of samples of coffee beans. The beans are ground, water is poured over the grounds, and the liquid is tasted both hot and as it cools. The key evaluation characteristics are Aroma, Acidity, Body, and Flavor.

Cupping Spoon
A spoon, about the size of a bouillon soup spoon, but perfectly round, used to taste coffee during a cupping session. Made of silver or stain less steel so as to have no flavor or aroma impact.


Terms for a procedure in which the sticky fruit pulp, or mucilage, is removed from freshly picked coffee beans by scrubbing in machines. Mechanical demucilaging is gradually replacing the traditional wet processing procedure of removing mucilage by fermentation and washing.

Abbreviation for "double picked," meaning the coffee in question has been subjected to hand picking to remove imperfect beans, pebbles, and other foreign matter twice rather than once.

Dry Process
In the dry process, ripe cherries are first dried in the sun, after which the dried skin, pulp, and parchment are removed from the bean (seed). The process takes about two weeks and the cherries must be raked while drying to avoid mildew. Dry processing produces coffees with less acidity and more body compared to the wet process. Dry processing is only done in growing regions with a naturally hot and dry climate. Brazil, Ethiopia, and Yemen produce most of the worlds dry processed coffees. Dry processed coffee is also called "unwashed", or "natural".


A coffee estate is a coffee plantation. Estate coffees typically sell at a premium due to better consistency and higher quality control compared to coffees collected from many small farms.

Second-best grade of Colombia coffee.


Fair Trade
A concept by Transfair to pay coffee farmers a fair price for their product in order to support the farmers and enable them to keep doing what they do best. Unfortunately, it?s not as clean & whistle as that. In order to be a certified Fair Trade coffee producer, a coffee farmer must be a part of a Cooperative. This means that coffees from different local farms are collected into a single lot. While this does provide for better payment to the farmers, this does have a hindrance on quality and farmers who are unable to be a part of a Coop. Becoming licensed is also expensive and takes up to 7 years (if memory serves correctly) to become licensed. It leaves the independent farmers out of the deal. There are other programs in the works that are trying to solve this problem, and take the place of Fair Trade for industry professionals.

An important but confusing coffee term with two main meanings. 1) As a positive component of the wet method of coffee processing, fermentation is a stage in which the sticky pulp is loosened from the skinned coffee seeds or beans by natural enzymes while the beans rest in tanks. If water is added to the tanks the process is called wet fermentation; if no water is added it is called dry fermentation. 2) In sensory evaluation, or cupping, of coffee, fermentation is an important descriptor for a range of related taste defects set off when the sugars in the coffee fruit begin to ferment. Sensations described as ferment can range from sweet, composty, rotten-fruit tastes to harsh, moldy, musty, or medicinal tastes.

Flavored Coffee
Roasted coffee sprayed with flavoring. Flavored coffee is generally made using inexpensive, low quality, beans. The flavoring used is very strong and can transfer tastes and odors to other foods by contact with surfaces used previously to hold flavored coffee.

Froth or Foam
The terms froth and foam refer to milk which has been made thick and foamy by aerating it with hot steam. When you hear that loud, hissing sound in coffee shops and restaurants, it is the sound of baristas making froth or foam by infusing milk with very hot, pressurized air. Froth, or foam, is a light and tasty element of lattes, mochas, and many other popular coffee drinks.


Green Beans
Unroasted coffee beans. Green coffee has gone through a multitude of processes from the time the coffee cherries are harvested to when the raw, dried, and dehusked "coffee beans" are packaged in burlap sacks ready for export. Also used to describe insufficiently roasted coffee.

Gourmet Coffee
Also called "specialty" or "premium" coffee, gourmet coffees are made from exceptional Arabica beans grown in ideal coffee-producing climates, and usually harvested by hand in mountainous areas. Gourmet coffees have distinctive flavors, specific to botanical variety, processing method, and the unique characteristics of the soil and environment that produces them. Gourmet coffees stand in stark contrast to the often bitter Robusta beans grown at low elevations and harvested by machine.


Hard Bean
Hard bean coffee is grown at relatively high altitudes, from 4,000 to 4,500 feet above sea level. Coffee grown above 4,500 feet is referred to as strictly hard bean. This terminology says that beans grown at higher altitudes mature more slowly and are harder and denser than other beans and are thus more desirable.

History of Coffee
Coffee's history goes back to at least the fifteenth century and spans the globe. It is believed that Ethiopia is the place where the consumption of coffee originated, and then spread to Yemen and Egypt. Coffee beans are believed to have been first roasted and brewed in Arabia, then spread to the Middle East, Northern Africa, and finally Europe. Coffee is a major world commodity and its history is long and rich.


Kaffee Veredelungs Werk. KVW is a German company that, among other things, decaffeinates coffee beans. KVW decaffeinates large quantities of coffee beans, including the Methylene Chloride (MC) solvent method. Using the MC method, the coffee beans are heated with steam and exposed to Methylene Chloride which removes the caffeine but not the flavor. The resulting Methylene Chloride and Caffeine mixture is then separated from the coffee. KVW MC decaffeinated coffee has been thoroughly investigated and determined safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methylene Chloride boils at 104 degrees Fahrenheit, so any traces solvent that could inadvertantly be left in the beans would be boiled away during roasting. Final roasted bean temperature is above 400 degrees Fahrenheit.


Methyl Chloride
A solvent commonly used to decaffeinate coffee. To make decaffeinated coffee, unroasted beans may be heated with steam and exposed to Methylene Chloride. The resulting Methylene Chloride and Caffeine mixture is completely removed from the coffee. Since Methylene Chloride boils at 104 degrees Fahrenheit, any traces of solvent left in the beans would be boiled away during roasting, as the beans reach temperatures above 400 degrees Fahrenheit.

A "mocha" is a small, irregular coffee bean which has a unique, acidic character. The mocha bean is generally shipped from Mocha Yemen, and was introduced to Europe and thus the rest of the world by Marco Polo. The Mocha coffee bean is sometimes mixed with coffee shipped from Mocha Yemen. The Mocha coffee bean has no correlation with the chocolaty drink - so the two should not be confused.

Monsooned Coffee
Monsooned coffee has been deliberately exposed to monsoon winds in open warehouse to increase body and reduce acidity. One common example of monsooned coffee is Javanese coffee. By exposing coffee to warm, moist air during the rainy season, the flavor is strengthened while acidity is lost. This type of coffee can be quite expensive, and is very delicious.


Outer Skin
The thick outermost membrane of the coffee cherry (fruit), similar to the skin of a grape. In the wet, and semi-dry processes, the skin of ripe coffee cherries is removed before drying the coffee beans. In the dry process, the skin is left in place while the whole ripe coffee cherries are dried to allow easier separation of the skin, pulp and hull from the coffee beans.


Skin is the hull of a coffee cherry seed that surrounds the "coffee bean". The parchment skin is removed from the coffee bean during processing. The silver skin usually remains until it floats away, burns away, or is otherwise separated as "chaff" during the roasting process.
Parchment Coffee
Coffee beans with the skin and pulp removed, but with the parchment (hull) still attached. Dried parchments are transferred to hulling facilities where the hulls are removed and the beans are packaged in large burlap bags ready for export.

Normally, each coffee cherry contains two beans. Occasionally, a cherry will form with only one bean. These single coffee beans are called peaberries and are frequently separated and sold as their own distinct and special varietal. New Guinea is one of the more popular regions where peaberry coffee originates.

Removing the pulp as part of the wet process. After picking coffee cherries, the first step of processing, using the wet method, is to remove the skin and pulp. Conventional pulping machines have a rotating cylinder that collects harvested cherries immersed in water and presses them against perforations just large enough for the beans to pass. The beans of soft cherries are pushed through the perforations and collected separately while the harder green cherries along with the skin and much of the pulp from the ripe cherries are passed through the machine.


Ripe Coffee Cherries
Ripe cherries are plump and depending on variety have a red or yellow color. Under-ripe cherries are hard and green. Over-ripe cherries have a dark and shriveled appearance. Ripe cherries are separated from under-ripe and over-ripe cherries by hand picking and by machine during processing.

Roast Master
Individual in charge of coffee selection, blending, and roasting operations.

Common name for Coffea Canephora plant. Coffea Canephora and Coffea Arabica are practically the only coffee species used to make coffee. Robusta coffee trees, like Arabica trees, can both grow to about 40 feet high, but Robusta beans tend to be smaller and more bitter. Robusta trees are "robust", meaning they are less susceptible to pests and disease and yield more coffee crop. Coffea Canephora is the dominant coffee species grown at low elevations due to its ability to resist pests and disease.


Specialty Coffee Association of America. This is the industry Association for north America. The SCAA is responsible for the United States Barista Competition (USBC), and is responsible in part with the SCAE(Europe) for the World Barista Competition (WBC). The SCAA is also the parent organization for institutions like the Barista Guild of America, and the Roasters Guild. The SCAA is in place to help standardize terms and practices in the industry.

Semi-Dry-Processed Coffee
Pulped Natural Coffee, Semi-Wet-Processed Coffee. Coffee prepared by removing the outer skin of the coffee fruit (a process called pulping) and drying the skinned coffee with the sticky mucilage and the inner skins (parchment and silverskin) still adhering to the bean. This processing method, situated between the dry method and the wet method, has no consensus name. It is one of three processing methods practiced in Brazil, and is used sporadically on a small scale by farmers in Sumatra and Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Specialty High Grown

Specialty Hard Bean

Shade Grown, "Bird Friendly"
Describes coffee grown under a shade canopy. Arabica coffee is traditionally grown in shade in many (but not all) parts of Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela, and in some other parts of the world, including India and some regions of Indonesia and Africa. Elsewhere arabica coffee is traditionally grown in full sun, or near full sun. The importance of maintaining shade canopies to supply habitat for migrating song birds in Central America has led to a controversial campaign by researchers at the Smithsonian Institute and their supporters to define "shade grown" in rather narrow terms (shade provided by mixed native trees) and label coffees grown under such a native canopy as "bird friendly." Farmers who traditionally have not grown coffee in shade but maintain extensive forest reserves on their land understandably object to the concept, as do those who use non-native trees to shade their coffee. On the other hand, shade grown coffees most definitely are much easier on the environment than sun grown coffees, and the better tasting traditional varieties of arabica, bourbon and typica, are, in Central America at least, best grown in shade.

Silver Skin
The thin membrane, similar to rice paper, that adheres to coffee beans after removing the husk (hull). Processing may "polish" the unroasted coffee beans removing much of the silver skin. Any remaining silver skin is removed during the roasting process.

Single Origin
Unblended coffee from a single country, growing region, or plantation. Sometimes called straight coffee.

Slurp and Spit
The term for slurping the coffee from the spoon, tasting it and spitting it out.

Soft Bean
The term soft bean describes coffee grown at relatively low altitudes (under 4,000 ft). Beans grown at lower altitudes mature more quickly and produce a lighter, more porous bean. Some examples of soft bean coffee (or Typica beans) include Jamaican Blue Mountain, Kona, and some Colombian and Indonesian varietals.

is a 100% chemical free coffee decaffeination process. Most decaffeination processes use chemical solvents, such as methylene chloride (MC). The SWISS WATER? Process uses only water to remove caffeine, producing a water processed decaf coffee.


Thermal Block
A system for heating water in espresso brewers that uses coils of pipe enclosed inside a heating element or hot water tank.

Traditional Process, European Process
A group of decaffeination methods that use solvents to remove caffeine from green coffee beans. The direct solvent method involves treating the beans with solvent, which selectively unites with the caffeine and is removed from the beans by steaming. The indirect solvent or solvent-water method involves soaking the green beans in hot water, removing the caffeine from the hot water by means of a solvent, and recombining the water with the beans, which are then dried.

The organization that owns the Fair Trade label in the United States.


The term used for the coffee that comes from a geographical region is "varietal." Sumatra, Kenya, Costa Rica or a Java are all coffee varietals. As in wine, the soil, climate and cultivation methods affect the taste of your coffee. The term varietal is actually a misnomer, since Arabica coffee plants are basically of the same species, unlike wine grapes which come from different species of grape vines.

Vintage Coffee, Aged Coffee
Traditionally, coffee held in warehouses for several years, sometimes deliberately, sometimes inadvertently. Such aging reduces acidity and increases body. Aged coffee has been held longer than either old crop coffee or mature coffee. Recently, some Indonesia coffee has been subject to a sort of accelerated aging involving deliberate exposure to moist air, much like India's monsooned coffee.


Wet-Processed Coffee
Wet Method Coffee, Washed Coffee. Coffee prepared by removing the skin and pulp from the bean while the coffee fruit is still moist. Most of the world's great coffees are processed by the wet method, which generally intensifies acidity. In the traditional wet process, the coffee skins are removed (pulping), the skinned beans are allowed to sit in tanks where enzymes loosen the sticky fruit pulp or mucilage (fermentation), after which the loosened fruit is washed off the beans (washing). In the shortcut demucilage or aquapulp method, the pulp or mucilage is scrubbed from the beans by machine.

Whole-Bean Coffee
Coffee that has been roasted but not yet ground.
Edited by ginny on 03/14/2013 9:53 AM
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